Rockology 101

Welcome to class! This is a place for students of all ages to learn about Rogers Group operations and products or just have a little fun!

Rockology 101: Learning
Rockology 101: Fun Facts
Mine Boggling Rocks
Ingredients of Camping Equipment
Geological Sites of Interest
Rockology 101: Activities


Ingredients of Camping Equipment

Everyone who hikes and camps knows what to carry in a backpack. But have you ever given any thought to what camping equipment is made of, and where those things come from?


Pack Fabric

Virtually all synthetic fabrics and plastics are made from petrochemicals produced from petroleum or coal. Petroleum requires the drilling of oilwells and pumping the crude oil.More than 40% of all the petroleum products used in the U.S. are imported.Coal comes from open pit or underground mines. The U.S. is self-sufficient in coal.



Nylon, plastic.
Petrochemicals from crude oil or coal.

sleeping bag

Sleeping Bag

Nylon,down, or synthetic fill like Hollofil.
Down comes from geese and ducks fed with grain fertilized with petrochemical and potash-based fertilizers. The nylon shell is made from petrochemicals, as are synthetic insulating fibers.



Plastic, brass, steel, gold.
Petrochemicals,iron ore, manganese, copper and zinc ores. Gold is often used in the microprocessor of automatic cameras to make sure the connections do not fail. Gold is mined in underground or surface mines. The most gold is mined in South Africa, but Nevada is now the world's fourth largest gold producer.



Plastic film, silver.
Petrochemicals, silver ore. Silver is usually a byproduct of copper and lead mining and gold recovery. The silver compound forms the light sensitive part of the film.

First Aid Kit

First aid kit

Plastics, chemicals, cotton.
The sticky bandages are made from plastics (petrochemicals) and cotton. Many of the ointments are disinfectants derived from petrochemicals in a petroleum jelly base. Sun block may contain zinc and titanium compounds.

Toothpaste Toothpaste

Water,cleaning powder,flouride.
The cleaning powder in toothpaste is a finely ground mineral. It is usually gypsum [calcium sulfate hydrate CaSO42H2O] or limestone {calcium carbornate CaCO3]. Some toothpastes contain baking soda which is produced from trona ores, mined in Wyoming. The tube is made from aluminum (bauxite) or plastic (petrochemicals). The fluoride comes from a chemical grade fluorite [calcium fluoride CaF2], a transparent mineral often mined as a byproduct of lead, in surface and underground mines

Fishing Pole

Fiberglass, plastic, steel.
Fiberglass is a glass with a high content of minerals called borates; plastic from petrochemicals, and steel from iron and manganese ores

Pencil Pencil

Wood, graphite, steel, rubber, paint, clay.
A regular "lead pencil" has a cedar wood outer part. The lead is really made out of graphite. The graphite includes a small amount of clay to make it write smoothly and control the hardness and hold the graphite together. The graphite can be from petrochemicals. (There is no lead in a lead pencil.) The eraser is rubber which comes from rubber trees or is synthesized from petrochemicals. The steel ferrule which holds the eraser is made from iron and manganese ores. The paint is made from petrochemicals, mineral pigments, and mineral fillers.


Glass, plastic, brass, aluminum.
Silica sand, petrochemicals,copper and zinc ore, and bauxite.

Matches Matches

Wood, sulfur, phosphorus.
Wood comes from trees cut with saws made of steel. Phosphorus is obtained from phosphate mines in Utah, Idaho, and Florida. Sulfur is produced as a byproduct of oil refining, copper ore processing, or by solution mining of salt domes in the Gulf of Mexico and Middle East

Buildings Buildings

Wood, cement, stone, bricks, nails.
Wood comes from trees cut with saws made of steel. Some buildings are made from bricks which are clay. Others are built from stone which is mined from quarries. Most use some form of cement or concrete. Cement is produced from limestone which is mined, crushed to fine powder, then "burned" in a kiln with a little gypsum and iron to produce Portland cement. The Portland cement is mixed with sand, gravel and water to make concrete or just sand and water to make mortar.

Kerosene Lantern Kerosene Lantern

Steel, glass, cotton.
Steel for the frame and tank is made from iron and manganese ore. Glass for the globe is made from silica sand trona.[Na3(CO3)(HCO3)2H2O]and other sodium minerals. Cotton grown with potash and petrochemical based fertilizer and pesticides is used for the wick.

battery Batteries

Steel or paper case, carbon, zinc, manganese, nickel, copper cadmium, lithium, and/or mercury.
Batteries come in several major types. The least expensive is known as a "carbon-zinc" battery. All are metals produced from ores mined from open pit and underground mines.


Nested Utensils

Stainless steel.
Stainless steel is a complex alloy of iron, chromium, nickel, copper, and other metals. Nickel is mined by open pit and underground methods in Ontario, Canada, Southeast Asia, and formerly mined in Oregon

radio Radio

Plastic, steel, copper, tin, lead, silicon, germanium and other rare earth elements.
The plastic comes from petrochemicals, steel from iron and manganese, and copper from ore. The solder is made of lead and tin.

Clothing Clothing

Cotton, nylon, polyester, orlon, elastic.
All are synthetic except cotton. The synthetics are made from petrochemicals. The elastic that holds up socks and underwear is a synthetic rubber made from petrochemicals.

Vegetables Food

Plants, animals.
Our food is derived from plants and animals which require petrochemical based fertilizers and pesticides to produce the quality and quantity to which we are accustomed. Trail food is sealed in aluminized (bauxite) or plastic wrap (petrochemicals).

Dishes Dishes

Clay, aluminum.
China dishes are made from a special clay that is formed, then vitrified in a kiln. Clay comes from open pit mines in most states. Aluminum is made from bauxite.

Zipper Zippers

Plastic, brass or steel.
Plastics are made from petrochemicals. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Steel is basically an alloy of iron and manganese.

Fastening Pins

Zinc plated steel.
Steel is an alloy of iron and manganese; zinc is a metal used for castings and as a plating to prevent rust. All come from open pit and underground mines.

Flashlight Flashlight

Plastic, steel, or aluminum tube, glass, tungsten.
Plastic is made from petrochemicals, aluminum is made from bauxite. Most flashlights also have components made of high tensile steel and glass, which is produced from melted silica sand, trona [Na3(CO3)(HCO3)2H2O] and other sodium minerals. The light bulb's filament is made of tungsten, a metal mined by surface or underground methods in many countries and the light bulb's base is brass or aluminum.